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Writing in Psychology Overview Summary: Written for undergraduate students and new graduate students in psychology (experimental), this handout provides information on writing in psychology and on experimental report and experimental article writing.Contributors:Dana Lynn Driscoll, Aleksandra Kasztalska Last Edited: 2013-03-12 09:53:54 Psychology is based on the study of human behaviors.

As a social science, experimental psychology uses empirical inquiry to help understand human behavior Indeed, researchers face an array of ethical requirements: They must meet professional, institutional and federal standards for conducting research with human participants, often supervise students they also teach and have to sort out authorship issues, just to name a few. Here are five recommendations APA's Science  .As a social science, experimental psychology uses empirical inquiry to help understand human behavior.

According to Thrass and Sanford (2000), psychology writing has three elements: describing, explaining, and understanding concepts from a standpoint of empirical investigation.Discipline-specific writing, such as writing done in psychology, can be similar to other types of writing you have done in the use of the writing process, writing techniques, and in locating and integrating sources.However, the field of psychology also has its own rules and expectations for writing; not everything that you have learned in about writing in the past works for the field of psychology Of course, before you write up the report you have to research human behavior, and collect some data. Final year students often find it difficult to choose a suitable research topic for their psychology lab report, and usually attempt to make things more complicated than they need to be. Ask you supervisor for advice, but if in  .However, the field of psychology also has its own rules and expectations for writing; not everything that you have learned in about writing in the past works for the field of psychology.Writing in psychology includes the following principles: Using plain language: Psychology writing is formal scientific writing that is plain and straightforward.

Literary devices such as metaphors, alliteration, or anecdotes are not appropriate for writing in psychology corporate law.Literary devices such as metaphors, alliteration, or anecdotes are not appropriate for writing in psychology.Conciseness and clarity of language: The field of psychology stresses clear, concise prose.You should be able to make connections between empirical evidence, theories, and conclusions.See our OWL handout on conciseness for more information.

Evidence-based reasoning: Psychology bases its arguments on empirical evidence.

Personal examples, narratives, or opinions are not appropriate for psychology.Use of APA format: Psychologists use the American Psychological Association (APA) format for publications.While most student writing follows this format, some instructors may provide you with specific formatting requirements that differ from APA format.Types of writing Most major writing assignments in psychology courses consists of one of the following two types.Experimental reports: Experimental reports detail the results of experimental research projects and are most often written in experimental psychology (lab) courses.

Experimental reports are write-ups of your results after you have conducted research with participants.This handout provides a description of how to write an experimental report .Critical analyses or reviews of research: Often called "term papers," a critical analysis of research narrowly examines and draws conclusions from existing literature on a topic of interest.These are frequently written in upper-division survey courses.Our research paper handouts provide a detailed overview of how to write these types of research papers.

A woman shopping at a supermarket Shopping is a long series of decisions; not necessarily right or wrong decisions, just decisions.As we roam through shops, our brain unceasingly processes incoming stimuli, compares this information with past experiences, makes a decision and finally translates it into muscle movement.Outwardly, we pick an item and add it to our shopping cart.Whether in the supermarket or at the mall, we have to choose at every turn, for or against garments in all shapes and colours, between laundry detergents in different price ranges and shower gels in many fragrances.

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However, whether we can smell a whiff of lemon or almond while taking a shower hardly matters (for most of us).

Making a decision then becomes almost arbitrary – and this opens the doors for someone to manipulate us into believing there’s a decision to be made when there might not be.The goal of any marketing campaign is to bias this process in the customer’s mind to make an essentially meaningless decision in favour of some brand Cultural bias -. Is the theory / study ethnocentric? Psychology is predominantly a white, Euro-American enterprise. In some texts, over 90% of studies have US participants, who are predominantly white and middle class. Does the theory or study being discussed judge other cultures by Western standards? Animal Research -..The goal of any marketing campaign is to bias this process in the customer’s mind to make an essentially meaningless decision in favour of some brand.

Neuromarketing – the analysis and optimisation of marketing strategies using methods from neuroscience – is a relatively new addition to the marketing expert’s arsenal.Only a decade has passed since the term first appeared in marketing journals 27 Jan 2015 - But Riot Games, the Santa Monica-based company behind this wildly successful game, wants to raise the standards of online communities.   Past psychology studies have shown that exposing people to certain stimuli, such as particular words, images or colors, can subconsciously influence their later  .Only a decade has passed since the term first appeared in marketing journals.A fluid definition Advertisers have longed to look directly into the consumer’s mind, to know what she’s going to decide before she knows it herself, to find the ultimate “buy-button” and to create the completely see-through consumer.

With the advent of neurological imaging techniques in the 1990s, ‘scientific’ marketing seemed to promise these advertisers success bacsinhakhoa.net/paper/where-to-order-a-custom-youth-issues-paper-double-spaced-a4-british-european-8-hours-plagiarism-free.With the advent of neurological imaging techniques in the 1990s, ‘scientific’ marketing seemed to promise these advertisers success.Many newspaper articles have since predicted that ‘neuromarketing’ will change the advertising industry in the second half of the noughties.However, the consumer has not experienced many of these neurologically optimised sales strategies just yet, and a lack of financial resources in the advertising industry alone isn’t the reason.Just in India, advertisement expenditure is expected to reach Rs 61,204 crore in 2017, 10% higher than the year before, according to a report by the media agency GroupM.Worldwide, expenditure on marketing is expected to hit almost Rs 38 lakh crore ($580 billion).

Using the keyword ‘neuromarketing’, some marketing companies have tried to stake their claim in this giant pie.Currently, over a hundred companies offer their services for neuromarketing worldwide, ten-times as many as just 10 years ago.It is no wonder that the media and marketing agencies have pounced on this imposing term, in alternating modes of panic and enthusiasm.An exhaustive examination of the subject is difficult because neuromarketing links various overlapping disciplines: economics, marketing and management, the behavioural sciences, psychology and neurology.Few experts have profound knowledge of all these disciplines and are able to draw sound conclusions about neuromarketing.

Even a professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ranchi, who recently co-authored a book on neuromarketing, struggled to explain what neuromarketing could do.“The application of neuroscience will help understand consumers’ behaviour better,” she said when asked what she thought of the efficacy of neuromarketing as a tool in marketing.And what eventually changes for the consumers when a campaign has been designed with the help of neuromarketing will be “mostly their experience.” In addition, there is no clear line between science and private services.Researchers become marketing providers and vice versa; the literature and supposedly scientific lectures may turn out to be self-marketing for offered services.

So how feasible is it to understand what neuromarketing is and how it works? How can one differentiate between valid results and hocus-pocus made attractive? ‘Seeing’ decisions in the making Neuromarketing rests on one assumption: that information can be gleaned directly from the brain.This includes information that consumers are incapable of articulating into words as well as information they are not willing to disclose.To gather this information, traditional marketing tools like customer surveys, product presentations and advertisements are combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, eye-tracking apparatuses and skin conductance measurements.However, it wasn’t until the introduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that neuromarketing studies gained momentum.fMRI made it easier than ever to interpret scan data.

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In fact, a brain scanner can track parts of the decision-making process running in the head of a consumer quite well.In an early neuromarketing study in 2007, psychologist Brian Knutson at Stanford University had his test participants conduct the so-called SHOP task.The experimenter gave the participants a certain amount of money Today's events. • Go over method section. • Lab Report 2 due: by the start of Lab during the week of October 7th   Example: A study (N = 2000) finds that 100% of Americans rank chocolate as one of their five favorite foods. • The methods   Getting down to business. • Label your subsections. • Participants. • Materials..The experimenter gave the participants a certain amount of money.

They could spend it on specific products.They simply had to do make each purchasing decision inside the brain scanner How to Write a Lab Report Simply Psychology.

They simply had to do make each purchasing decision inside the brain scanner.

A monitor in the scanner first displayed a product, then the price and finally a choice box through which the participants could decide for or against the purchase.Knutson assigns various decision-making sub-tasks to activation patterns in the participants’ brains as recorded by the fMRI.Based on these samples, he was able to predict whether the respondent would buy a particular product or not.Following Knutson’s experiment, and many others similar ones since, scientists were able to create a neuronal map outlining the decision-making processes for purchasing and the corresponding areas involved in the brain.

In fact, brain research has failed to detect the activation of certain processes only in individual cases, particularly those involving spatially limited areas.

By observing that the same networks are activated every time for certain tasks, scientists were able to say that the task’s performance is correlated with specific activation patterns.Several such individual processes add up to a purchase decision.The brain calculates a reward value, called the pleasure of acquisition, and a deterring value called the pain of paying, and various other conditions to decide whether or not to make a purchase.The reward value is a measure of how much a product is able to stimulate the deep-seated reward pathway in the brain.One structure, the nucleus accumbens, is activated when an action performed is rated as particularly positive, like when you drink water when thirsty.

The nucleus accumbens is also activated when a pleasant visual stimulus is processed.So based on the activation patterns of the nucleus accumbens, Knutson could visualise how attractive test subjects found a product presented to them and if they wanted it.But the attractiveness of a product alone does not decide a purchase.Shortly after presenting a product on the monitor, Knutson also showed the participants the price tag.This is where the pain of paying comes into play.

It turned out that the price’s display was associated with activity in the insular cortex, a buried part of the cerebral cortex, approximately at the level of the temples.In the supermarket, the insula is, so to speak, an opponent of the reward pathway: the stronger its activation, the more likely it is that the product remains on the shelf.There are other factors that influence a purchasing decision.For example, the ambience in the store, the behaviour of the sales staff, the customer’s own mood and the brand value.Their respective weights are combined and computed in the prefrontal cortex.

It is the hub that eventually extracts a conclusion from the various neuronal processes and makes the decision: Ariel or Surf, lime or almond, Coca Cola or Pepsi.

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Tall claims It is tempting to conclude that finding the perfect recipe, the best design for the packaging, the most attractive advertisement and the most compelling logo for all products should be easy using neuromarketing tools.All you need is 20 people and an fMRI machine to test your variables.The degrees of activation of their reward pathways should be clear indicators, visible to everyone in the form of prepared fMRI images Help me write psychology lab report at an affordable price 72 pages / 19800 words 10 days US Letter Size MLA.The degrees of activation of their reward pathways should be clear indicators, visible to everyone in the form of prepared fMRI images.

In fact, neuromarketing companies have a line of reasoning that’s almost a template: Show picture A in the scanner, see activation in the areas B and C, and conclude – on the basis of previous scientific results and our own research – that situation D is given.

“Per second in the scanner we typically collect one million data points,” says Peter Kenning, a professor of business administration at the University of D sseldorf and a renowned expert on “consumer neuroscience,” a field of research that is superordinate to neuromarketing.That is a lot of data, which can be evaluated only with sophisticated statistical methods and years of practice.Kenning studies general questions on consumer behaviour from a neurological perspective write me an engineering technologies thesis American Formatting Academic.Kenning studies general questions on consumer behaviour from a neurological perspective.Neuromarketing is only part of the discipline, and Kenning is quite skeptical about its practical execution.“The transfer of scientific findings into corporate activities often fails not only due to methodological deficits of the companies, but also simply due to a lack of knowledge,” the economist said.

“Only few companies – the Italian chocolatier Ferrero, for example, which recently created a management position titled ‘Shopper Neuroscience’ – really have the skills to use the obtained results in a strategic way.Nevertheless, high budgets are regularly allocated to these projects.” In search of ghosts In many of these projects, participants are confronted with certain products or advertisements while in an fMRI machine or while wearing EEG caps.The aim is to identify what is pleasurable and what isn’t.One guiding principle often used in such studies is based on product-specific emotional patterns.

Using brain activation patterns, neuromarketers claim to be able to find out if a participant, consciously or subconsciously, associates positive emotions like joy and trust or negative ones like anger and disgust with the product that she is seeing.This approach was used in a recent commercial neuromarketing exercise conducted in Germany.Twenty-five people were made to watch short movies of people cleaning while inside an fMRI scanner.Together with a marketing company and a well-known German manufacturer of cleaning equipment, researchers tried to prove that cleaning “exerts significantly higher attraction” when it is done using the brand’s products and triggers more “positive emotions such as longing and anticipation” in the participants.The neuromarketers presented their results as being indicative of a self-developed “emotional network” using impressive pictures of functional brain scans, thus creating some powerful selling points for the products.

Peter Kirsch, a professor of clinical psychology at the Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim, Germany, however, has never heard of such an emotional network despite having investigated how the brains of healthy and sick people process emotions for many years.“I am not aware of anyone having ever described such an emotional network and having it empirically tested,” the psychologist said.“I think it is utopian that one can read out exact basic emotions.” Indeed, general negative and positive emotional states can be captured by an fMRI machine – but they can’t be precisely mapped on to those emotions we signify through language.Kenning wonders what the real motivation for the cleaning study could have been: “Do the experimenters actually want to better understand neural processes? Or does the company simply want to place a product on the market?” Between manufacturers and retailers, neuromarketing studies are often cited as the ultimate argument to include a certain product on the shelves of a retail outlet.

The studies are considered to be scientifically proven sales guarantees.“Also the managers of the manufacturer are losing their voices, because they cannot grasp these highly theoretical methods,” Kenning pointed out.

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The neuromarketing company acts as a black box recommending certain actions as a result of their interpretations but which are incomprehensible to outsiders.Moreover, the methods themselves have pitfalls.fMRI measurements are definite but there is often more than one way to interpret them, especially without the right controls 12 Mar 2013 - Discipline-specific writing, such as writing done in psychology, can be similar to other types of writing you have done in the use of the writing process, writing techniques, and in locating and   Use of APA format: Psychologists use the American Psychological Association (APA) format for publications..

fMRI measurements are definite but there is often more than one way to interpret them, especially without the right controls.

Considering the large amount of data generated, false positives ought to be common.In 2009, Californian scientists highlighted this problem in a humorous way.They introduced a dead salmon into an fMRI scanner and measured its brain activity in response to photos of people in different emotional states Inside the Largest Virtual Psychology Lab in the World WIRED.They introduced a dead salmon into an fMRI scanner and measured its brain activity in response to photos of people in different emotional states.They could detect typical activation patterns, which varied according to the faces shown.

Of course, a sentimental dead salmon is pure nonsense, but the study showed easy it was to misinterpret such measurements.

Another fundamental problem is reverse inference.Detecting activation in certain neuronal networks while a participant solves a problem does not necessarily mean that the two events are correlated – but researchers often jump to this conclusion.This is like a sniper who draws a target around the bullet hole after the shot and then claims to have hit the bull’s eye.Neuroscientists often conclude that certain emotional networks are at work from measured brain activation patterns.These results must be examined critically to understand their importance.

Ultimately, the question remains as to whether results measured in only a few subjects can be generalised for the population at large.A few successes In a 2011 study, the American neuroeconomist Gregory Berns, director for the Centre for Neuropolicy, Atlanta, was able to predict the success of previously unknown pop songs by testing 25 American teenagers via fMRI scans.He played short clips of the songs while the scanner measured the teenagers’ brain responses, and then computed average ‘values’.He found that activities measured in the reward pathways of the teenagers’ brains correlated with the success that these songs had on the market.He also found that the teenagers’ responses to questionnaires asking them to rate the songs, on the other hand, did not work just as well.

This study was considered proof that neuromarketing could reveal hidden information.However, it is reasonable to assume that the musical tastes of American teenagers – all of them having been shaped by similar cultural inputs – are fairly homogeneous.Additionally, music offers major advantages as an object of neuromarketing research.Most people like music; its emotional content is quite high; and it can easily be consumed in a brain scanner.The truth, as usual, is more complex, particularly in India.

Indian consumers come from a huge variety of cultural, religious, educational and economic backgrounds, speak hundreds of different languages and dialects, and have diverse preferences apropos food, clothing, fragrances and music.In 2014, the Nielsen Corporation launched its first neuroscience lab in Mumbai to “study the subconscious mind of the respondent” in their trials, as Gayathri Swahar, the former director of Nielsen Consumer Neuroscience India, told the Indian Express.The US-based Nielsen Corporation is one of the world’s biggest marketing research firms.

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After having bought two important neuromarketing companies, it is considered a world leader in commercial consumer neuroscience.The company claims to “offer the most complete suite of cutting-edge, neuroscience-based tools at global scale.

” Not all those who neuromarket are lost It remain to be seen if fMRI, EEG and other tools used in neuromarketing can overcome India’s diversity or, in fact, if the diversity will make it more difficult to generalise the data Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students Simply Psychology.” Not all those who neuromarket are lost It remain to be seen if fMRI, EEG and other tools used in neuromarketing can overcome India’s diversity or, in fact, if the diversity will make it more difficult to generalise the data.

It is still unknown how far the results generated are representative of real consumer goods.Although modern EEG setups can be quite mobile and convenient, imaging methods are still limited to the narrow tube of the brain scanner, where real shopping situations can’t be simulated properly 5 days ago - An exhaustive examination of the subject is difficult because neuromarketing links various overlapping disciplines: economics, marketing and management, the behavioural sciences, psychology and neurology. Few experts have profound knowledge of all these disciplines and are able to draw sound  .Although modern EEG setups can be quite mobile and convenient, imaging methods are still limited to the narrow tube of the brain scanner, where real shopping situations can’t be simulated properly.A new method that is promising in this respect is the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has a potential similar to the fMRI’s but in the form of smaller and more portable scanners 5 days ago - An exhaustive examination of the subject is difficult because neuromarketing links various overlapping disciplines: economics, marketing and management, the behavioural sciences, psychology and neurology. Few experts have profound knowledge of all these disciplines and are able to draw sound  .A new method that is promising in this respect is the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has a potential similar to the fMRI’s but in the form of smaller and more portable scanners.Soon, purchase decisions can be tracked within the supermarket itself urban studies.

Soon, purchase decisions can be tracked within the supermarket itself.

Kirsch believes that “we will eventually be able to predict decisions quite well by interpreting brain activation patterns.The technology is getting better, and certainly it can be used in practice at some point.” He is not concerned about the notion of a ‘see-through consumer’.“The data people happily share in social networks every day can be exploited much more effectively.” Nick Lee, a professor of marketing at Warwick Business School in the UK and one of the world’s leading experts on consumer neuroscience, also insists that neuromarketing does not have any magical powers.

“It is just another way of gaining information.There is no button in the brain that we can push and that would turn people into consumer zombies.” In a paper published in May 2017, Lee reviewed a decade of neuromarketing research and concluded that it still is an “embryonic field”.He wrote that “we remain in the same basic position as we did in 2007” and that few articles appear to have addressed “whether neuroscientific insights can help us build new and improved explanations of marketing phenomena”.Neurologists still have a long way to go to understand in detail how our brain makes a decision, let alone predict it accurately.

There are already some applications for neuromarketing, but studies need to be designed carefully and the measurable parameters defined very well.It must be noted that the scope of sound interpretation is narrow and that conclusions cannot be generalised.Thus, the results coming out of neuromarketing studies usually do not compensate for its high cost and the complicated procedures.However, neuromarketing will continue to evolve with new scientific findings in the coming years.But beware: not every marketing company that labels its services “brain research” is backed by legitimate brain research.

Some of them just want to jack their prices up a little.Bernd Eberhart is a science journalist in T bingen, Germany.11:02 IST Conducting a piece of research is a requirement for most psychology degree courses.Of course, before you write up the report you have to research human behavior, and collect some data.

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Final year students often find it difficult to choose a suitable research topic for their psychology lab report, and usually attempt to make things more complicated than they need to be.Ask you supervisor for advice, but if in doubt, keep it simple, choose a memory experiment (you don't get extra marks for originality).Remember to make sure your research in psychology adheres to ethical guidelines to compose less formal reports, such as lab reports, that may consist of a subset of the items presented here.   report may have a technical background, the author should assume unfamiliarity with related theory   Psychological Association (APA) method or a modified version as explained below is most often used..Remember to make sure your research in psychology adheres to ethical guidelines.

You will also be likely to write your paper according to APA style.

Ethical Considerations in Research If the study involves any of the following, due consideration should be made about (1) whether to conduct the study, (2) how best to protect the participants’ rights APA Method Section.

Ethical Considerations in Research If the study involves any of the following, due consideration should be made about (1) whether to conduct the study, (2) how best to protect the participants’ rights.

If you are researching on private property, such as a shopping mall, you should seek permission APA Method Section.If you are researching on private property, such as a shopping mall, you should seek permission.• Deception about the nature of the study or the participants’ role in it.Unless you are observing public behavior, participants should be volunteers and told what your research is about.You should only withhold information if the research cannot be carried out any other way.In a school you will need the head teacher's consent and, if (s)he thinks it is advisable, the written consent of the children's’ parents/guardians.Testing children in a lab requires the written consent of parents/guardians.Experimentation with animals should only rarely be attempted.You must be trained to handle and care for the animals and ensure that their needs are met (food, water, good housing, exercise, gentle handling and protection from disturbance).Naturalistic observation poses fewer problems but still needs careful consideration; the animals may be disturbed especially where they are breeding or caring for young.When conducting investigations, never: • Make participants believe they may have harmed or upset someone else.• Break the law or encourage others to do it.

• Copy tests or materials without permission of the copyright holder.• Claim that somebody else’s wording is your own.Infringement of any ethical guidelines may result in disqualification of the project.

Lab Report Format Title page, abstract, references and appendices are started on separate pages (subsections from the main body of the report are not).Use double-line spacing of text, font size 12, and include page numbers.The report should have a thread of argument linking the prediction in the introduction to the content in the discussion.Title Page: This must indicate what the study is about.

Abstract: (you write this last) The abstract comes at the beginning of your report but is written at the end.The abstract provides a concise and comprehensive summary of a research report.

Your style should be brief, but not using note form.

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It should aim to explain very briefly (about 150 words) the following: • Start with a one/two sentence summary, providing the aim and rationale for the study.• Describe participants and setting: who, when, where, how many, what groups? • Describe the method: what design, what experimental treatment, what questionnaires, surveys or tests used.• Describe the major findings, which may include a mention of the statistics used and the significance levels, or simply one sentence summing up the outcome handout provides general tips on how to write a psychology lab report. Course standards vary, so check with your instructor if you are not sure what is required. Using APA Style. Manuscripts submitted for publication in American Psychological Association (APA) journals must use APA style, as described in the Publication  .

• Describe the major findings, which may include a mention of the statistics used and the significance levels, or simply one sentence summing up the outcome.

• The final sentence(s) outline the studies 'contribution to knowledge' within the literature.What does it all mean? Mention implications of your findings if appropriate.Introduction: The purpose of the introduction is to explain where your hypothesis comes from How companies are using Neuromarketing to nbsp Business Standard.Introduction: The purpose of the introduction is to explain where your hypothesis comes from.You must be explicit regarding how the research outlined links to the aims / hypothesis of your study.

• Start with general theory, briefly introducing the topic.• Narrow down to specific and relevant theory and research.• There should be a logical progression of ideas which aids the flow of the report.This means the studies outlined should lead logically into your aims and hypotheses.

• Do be concise and selective, avoid the temptation to include anything in case it is relevant (i.don't write a shopping list of studies).• Don’t turn this introduction into an essay.

• Don’t spell out all the details of a piece of research unless it is one you are replicating.

• Do include any relevant critical comment on research, but take care that your aims remain consistent with the literature review.If your hypothesis is unlikely, why are you testing it? AIMS: The aims should not appear out of thin air, the preceding review of psychological literature should lead logically into the aims.• Write a paragraph explaining what you plan to investigate and why.Use previously cited research to explain your expectations.Later these expectations are formally stated as the hypotheses.

• Do understand that aims are not the same as the hypotheses.Method Assume the reader has no knowledge of what you did and ensure that he/she would be able to replicate (i.copy) your study exactly by what you write in this section.

Don’t justify or explain in the Method (e.why you choose a particular sampling method), just report what you did.Only give enough detail for someone to replicate experiment - be concise in your writing.

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USE THE FOLLOWING SUBHEADING: Design – State the experimental design, the independent variable label and name the different conditions/levels.Name the dependent variables and make sure it's operationalized.counterbalancing, control of extraneous variables .

counterbalancing, control of extraneous variables.

Participants – Identify the target population (refer to a geographic location) and type of sample.Materials – Describe the materials used, e.word lists, surveys, computer equipment etc.

You do not need to include wholesale replication of materials – instead include a ‘sensible’ (illustrate) level of detail help me do a college transportation law powerpoint presentation US Letter Size British Platinum.You do not need to include wholesale replication of materials – instead include a ‘sensible’ (illustrate) level of detail.Procedure – Describe the precise procedure you followed when carrying out your research i.Describe in sufficient detail to allow for replication of findings.

Be concise in your description and omit extraneous / trivial details.you don't need to include details regarding instructions, debrief, record sheets etc.Results: The results section of a paper usually present the descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics.Avoid interpreting the results (save this for the discussion).Make sure the results are presented clearly and concisely.A table can be used to display descriptive statistics if this makes the data easier to understand.The exceptions to this rule: Numbers which can never exceed 1.and do not include 0 before the decimal place, e.Percentages and degrees of freedom: report as whole numbers.Statistical symbols that are not Greek letters should be italicised (e.M, Include spaces either side of equals sign.When reporting 95% CIs (confidence intervals), upper and lower limits are given inside square brackets, e.23 ” What information to include: The type of statistical test being used.Means, SDs & 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each IV level.If you have four to 20 numbers to present, a well-presented table is best, APA style.Clarification of whether no difference or a significant difference was found the direction of the difference (only where significant).The mean difference and 95% CIs (confidence intervals).

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The effect size (this does not appear on the SPSS output).For example - “A test revealed there was a significant (not a significant) difference in the scores for IV level 1 ( M = , M = , 6.Discussion: • Outline your findings in plain English (no statistical jargon) and relate your results to your hypothesis, e Writing Lab Reports or Research Reports Library.Discussion: • Outline your findings in plain English (no statistical jargon) and relate your results to your hypothesis, e.

is it supported or rejected? • Compare you results to background materials from the introduction section.

Are your results similar or different? Discuss why/why not Whether you are writing a lab report for a course, a graduate thesis, or a paper for publication in a scholarly research journal, the format is similar to the one described below. However, because some courses have special needs, always consult your instructor to find out the particular requirements for your assignment..Are your results similar or different? Discuss why/why not.• How confident can we be in the results? Acknowledge limitations, but only if they can explain the result obtained.If the study has found a reliable effect be very careful suggesting limitations as you are doubting your results.Unless you can think of any confounding variable that can explain the results instead of the IV, it would be advisable to leave the section out.• Suggest constructive ways to improve your study if appropriate.

• What are the implications of your findings? Say what your findings mean for the way people behave in the real world.• Suggest an idea for further researched triggered by your study, something in the same area, but not simply an improved version of yours.Perhaps you could base this on a limitation of your study.• Concluding paragraph – Finish with a statement of your findings and the key points of the discussion (e.interpretation and implications), in no more than 3 or 4 sentences.References: The reference section is the list of all the sources cited in the essay (in alphabetical order).It is not a bibliography (a list of the books you used).In simple terms every time you refer to a name (and date) of a psychologist you need to reference the original source of the information.

If you have been using textbooks this is easy as the references are usually at the back of the book and you can just copy them down.If you have been using websites then you may have a problem as they might not provide a reference section for you to copy.References need to be set out APA style: Books